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The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939




The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)


General Primo de Rivero (Dictator)

De Rivera's Governemnt ends

Spain becomes a republic

several mildly socialist governments followed each other

conservative opposition increased




a confronatation between the 'Republicans' (government) and the Nationalists (oppposition) and Monarchists developed

1936, July 18th           military revolt lead by general Franco started in Melilla and quickly spread in Spain


Civil War started


Republicans

Falange (nationalists)

supported by the Soviet Union and the Inter-national Brigades (volunteers from all over Europe and the USA)

supported by Germany (Condor Legion) and Italy


Victory by the Nationalists 'Caudillo'


The bombing of Tortosa


2 bombardments

- Heinkels throw bombs on an army (ahead)

- Savoia Marchetti bombers bomb Tortosa (above)



Hemingway's day


4 o'clock starting in Barcelona

6 o'clock passing Tarragona

1 o'clock Ulldecona

3 o'clock back in Tortosa, bridge blown up --> returnes to Barcelona


Translation of the first paragraph


Tortosa, Spanien. - Vor uns zogen fünfzehn Leichte Heinkel-Bomber, die beschützt wurden von Messerschmitt Jagdflugzeugen, herum in einem langsamen Kreis, wie Geier, die darauf warteten, dass ein Tier starb. Immer wenn sie einen bestimmten Punkt erreichten, gab es dumpfe Schläge von Bomben. Als sie zum blanken Hang, ihre starre Formation haltend, herum schwangen, tauchte jedes dritte Schiff mit speihenden Gewehren hinab. Sie behielten das bei für 45 Minuten ungestört bei, und das, auf was sie hinabtauchten und bombardierten, war eine Kompanie der Infanterie, die eine letzte Stellung auf dem Hang und dem kahlen Gipfel am Mittag dieses heißen Frühlingstages hielt, um die Straße von Barcelona nach Valencia zu verteidigen.



What is special about this war report?


Usually, reports are written neutral, without a comment and not inclusing the feelings of the author. Hemmingway, however, writes this text like an experience report. He includes his own thoughts and his feelings. He also prefers one party, the republicans. His text does not list facts or quotations, but pagives information about the feelings and emotions the soldiers have.





The Bombing of Tortosa

The old Man at the bridge

factural at the beginning

the use of parataxes to create emotions

personal impressions

and reporting, characterizing people




Old man at the bridge


Officer

Old Man

30-40 years old

on exploration (sldier)

professional, dynamic

observant, watchful

Republican

polite, friendly, mildly interested in the old man

might want to leave the decision with the old man



activity (? - old man)

76 years old / dusty

takes care of animals

lives alone

from a town calles San Carlos

'without politics'

he is worrying about his animals, not about

himself!

tiredness / fear for the animals


passivity












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