The British Monarchy
There is no
written document that could be called the Constitution of the UK. There are 3
distinctive features that have influenced Britain’s social and political
institutions: statute law, common law, conventions.
laws, which are written laws, are Acts of Parliament. They include rules of
major importance for the history of the country, for example, the Bill of
Rights(1689), which contains that there is no standing army at times of peace,
a free elections of MP’s,
of speech in Parliament and the consent of Parliament for all laws.
is the body of traditional, unwritten laws of England, based on judges’
decisions and custom. The advancing of the Habeas Corpus Act(1679) orders that
a person should be told by a judge why he or she is being held in custody.
are basically rules that have developed during the centuries or may have come
into existence only recently. As a reason of conventions there is a prime
minister or a cabinet. Some conventions are far more important than most of the
statues or common laws: the convention that the monarch assents to a bill
passed by both Houses of Parliament as compared with the theoretical right to
deny consent. Conventions are generally accepted rules for ensuring that the
Constitution is adapted to prevailing conditions and the abuse of public power
there are three elements of governments: the House of Commons, with its 650
of Lords, with hereditary and appointed peers, and the queen, who is Head of
legislative power is concentrated in the commons: the Lords can only delay
measure and no monarch has vetoed a bill since 1707. The Queen appoints the
Prime Minister and the
but, in practice, she always chooses the leaders of the biggest party in the
Prime Minister, who then chooses the cabinet.