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Referat New York




New York

The starts of the city New York go back in the year 1609, when the British researcher Henry Hudson, an employee of the Netherlands-westIndian commercial company established, a commercial establishment in a place at the bank of the later Hudson River, which was suitable outstanding as port.  17 years later strengthened the Dutchmen their supremacy in the region, by concluding with the native trade, which turned out to a grotesque exchange.  The Dutchmen acquired the island Manhattan as return for goods in the value of approximately 24 US Dollar and gave her the name new Amsterdam. 1664 conquered the British the port of new Amsterdam and modified his names in honours of the duke of York in New York.  At the beginning of the movement of independence 1775 the city had been established not only as safe port for Piraten and stronghold of the resistance against the English monarchy, but also as Ellis Iceland into the city. important commercial centre and important sea port.  In the process of the next century, when the first large immigration wave began, the number of inhabitants of the city rose to almost three million and help her to an enormous economic recovery. The



Empire State Building

cultural variety of the different ethnical groups, which shapes still today the appearance of the city crucially, became already early a determining factor of the New Yorker society.

A symbol of New York City all over the world, the Empire State Building stood as the tallest building in the world until 1977 when the World Trade Center took the title. None-the-less, the Empire State Building remains one of the most beloved and recognized buildings in the world. Designed in the Art Deco motif, the building was completed during the depression of 1929. When the building was completed, they had such a hard time finding tenants to rent space within it that New Yorkers began calling it the 'Empty State Building.' Luckily, the popularity of the observatories prevented the building from going into bankruptcy. Everything about the building was designed for ease the speed of construction. Pre-fabricated material was used as much as possible. As a result, work progressed at a rate of about four stories each week. The entire framework took 23 weeks to complete. The original design called for 86 stories, but a 150 ft (46m) mooring mast for zeppelins was added. Today the mast is used for TV and radio broadcasts. High-speed elevators traveling at up to 1,200 ft (366 m) per minute carry passengers from floor to floor. One frightening incident occurred in 1945, when a bomber plane flying through fog over Manhattan crashed into the building just above the 78th floor. An elevator carrying an elevator operator fell to the bottom. The woman was saved by the elevator emergency brakes. A natural lightning rod, the Empire State Building is struck up to 500 times each year. The outdoor observation decks are closed during thunderstorms, but the inside viewing areas remain open. Inside the marble-lined lobby, visitors can view a series of relief images created by artists Roy Sparkia and his wife Renee Nemerov in 1963. One illuminated relief image depicts the Empire State Building as the eighth wonder of the world. The images of the other Seven Wonders of the World are displayed along the lobby walls in shimmering relief.

Interesting facts:

Height from 102nd floor: 1,250 ft (381m) Visibility from the Observatory: a maximum of approximately 80 miles Building weight: 365,000 tons Bricks used: 10 million Number of windows: 6,500

Central Park Manhattan 

Central Park Manhattan Central Park provides New Yorkers with a much-needed escape from the concrete, noise and traffic that is part of everyday life. What is perhaps most interesting about this 843-acre haven is that none of it originally existed where it now stands. The park is entirely manufactured and required 10 million cartloads of stone and earth to fill the area. Over 500,000 trees and shrubs were planted here and provide shelter to a surprising variety of wildlife. The Central Park Wildlife Conservation Center is home to over 100 species of animals from three different climate zones: the Tropics, the Polar Circle, and the California Coast. The Ramble is a section of the park with over 250 species of birds because of its strategic location on the Atlantic Migratory path. Concerts are regularly held within the park, and visitors can find places to enjoy everything from chess to baseball. In the winter, Wollman Rink, restored by Donald Trump, provides a place for ice skaters to enjoy a crisp afternoon while practicing their spins and entertaining the many onlookers. Numerous celebrities have apartments overlooking Central Park; and, like singer Madonna who often jogs here, add to the variety of attractions found within the park's borders.

Brooklyn Bridge:

Established with use of most modern engineer techniques of John Augustus Roebling, one the most important bridge ingineer in the USA, the Brooklyn Bridge was inaugurated after 14-years construction period 1883.  The suspension bridge over the New Yorker East River connects the island Manhattan with the quarter Brooklyn on Long Iceland and was at present to its completion the longest bridge of their type.




Statue of Liberty

For travel-weary immigrants approaching New York Harbor, the first glimpse of the Statue of Liberty was an emotional experience remembered for life. Fittingly, engraved on the base of this monumental statue are the words from Emma Lazarus's poem, 'Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.' Designed by French sculptor, Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, the statue was intended as a monument to the freedom found lacking in his own country of France. Bartholdi said, 'I will try to glorify the Republic and Liberty over there, in the hope that someday I will find it again here.' Bartholdi used his own mother as the model for the statue and devoted 21 years of his life to the making of the monument. Gustave Eiffel, who later designed the Eiffel Tower, designed the frame. Lady Liberty, as the statue is sometimes called, was a gift from the French commemorating the American Revolution. The statue was unveiled on October 28, 1886, by President Grover Cleveland. Previously, the statue had been a fixture in Paris before it found its way to its present home on Bedloe's Island, now known as Liberty Island. In 1986 the statue underwent extensive restoration at a cost of $69.8 million dollars. A new gold torch was added replacing the corroded original (the original is on display in the main lobby). The torch was coated with 24-carat gold leaf. The Statue of Liberty is recognised as a symbol of freedom throughout the world.

Some interesting facts:

  • Height: 305 ft (93 m).
  • 354 steps lead from the entrance to the crown.
  • The seven rays of Lady Liberty's crown represent the seven seas and seven continents.
  • The pedestal is set within the walls of an army fort.
  • It was the largest concrete mass ever poured.
  • There are 25 windows in the crown, which symbolize 25 gemstones found on the earth.
  • The tablet, which the statue holds in her left hand, reads (in Roman numerals) 'July 4th, 1776.'










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