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Grafiken wurden aufgrund ihrer Grobe entfernt




Grafiken wurden aufgrund ihrer Größe entfernt

1.   History

1.1.          The Undiscovered South:



Before the first Europeans came to the continent of America the country was vastly unsettled. But in the Southeast of the Tennessee River the tribes of the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw and Chickasaw had their settlements. They were farmers.

Further south, mainly around the Mississippi Delta, the tribes of the Natchez and Chitimacha were living. All these Indians were completely driven out of their home country and into the area of today's Oklahoma as time went on.

1.2.          The Colonization:

1524-27 Giovanni da Verrazano explores on behalf of the French King the North American East Coast down to the today's South Carolina.

1521 the first Spaniards come to South Carolina and from 1539-42 Hernando de Soto, governor of Cuba, explores the area north of the Gulf of Mexico starting from Florida,

From 1526 onwards, Spanish, French and also English people try to settle in the region of Carolina, but they all fail.

In the 17th century French troops succeed in reaching the Mississippi River from the North over Canada and the Great Lakes.

1663 King Charles II of England designates the government of Carolina to eight English noblemen. One of these noblemen is Anthony Ashley Cooper, who founds Charleston in 1670, another one is James E. Oglethorpe, founder of the colony of Georgia in 1732.

1682: René R. Cavalier occupies the Mississippi Delta and proclaims the state of Louisiana with its capitol Nouvelle Orleáns (New Orleans, 1718). A few years later the French have to hand over Louisiana to Spain and England and finally it becomes a part of the United States in 1783. But French is still spoken in this territory, even nowadays.

1.3.          The War for Independence:

During the fight for independence, Georgia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina proclaim an own constitution and become part of the Union.

1803 the USA purchases the area of Louisiana and so doubles its territory. Mississippi and Alabama join the Union.

1815 General Andrew Jackson leads the United States to a victory over the British in the battle of New Orleans and is the first politician of the South to become president of the USA.

Since the second half of the 19th century the contrast between North and South has been growing larger and larger. The struggle over the issue of slavery is said to be the main reason for the conflict.

1.4.        The Civil War:

Two main reasons:

1.     big differences between North and South in development

2.     slavery

a) Differences

North:

1.     more factories, railroads and money

2.     modern economic system

3.     seize their economic chances

4.     unity in political patterns

South:

1.     mainly plantations (cotton)

2.     → dependent on food and industrial articles from the Northwest

3.     slaves (cheap production)

4.     mentally against support of industry and trade

5.     individual rights for each state

► political influence of the North increases

                                     development of slavery

  from 1800 to 1860

b) Slavery

Actually the Northern States were only searching for a reason to act against the Southern States when they prohibited slavery. They wanted to harm the South, which had become too rich and powerful during the years.

Events that led to the Civil War:

 

The Missouri Compromise:

In 1821, Missouri became the 24th state. Before this happened there was a great debate in Congress over slavery. Representative James Tallmadge of New York tried to add an anti-slavery amendment to the legislation. During the debate Tallmadge was supported by representatives from the North and opposed by those from the South. The amendment eventually passed the House of Representatives but was defeated when a vote was held in the Senate because the Senate was equally divided between free and slave states.

In December of 1819 the issue was finally settled by when the Congress passed a bill that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a free state and there was a stipulation added that banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north and west of Missouri's southern border.

Although this happened over 40 years before the Civil War started, it served to enlarge the division between the North and  the South, and increased the hatred between the two sides.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act:

The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the Congress on May 30, 1854. The act repealed the Missouri Compromise which had prohibited slavery north 36°30'.

The North was opposed to this bill, and the South supported it. After the bill was passed settlers began pouring into Kansas to help to determine whether Kansas would be pro-slavery or anti-slavery.

In the fall of 1854, elections were held. Pro-slavery candidates won the elections and a pro-slavery legislature was enacted. The anti-slavery settlers did not accept the results because they estimated that about 1700 Missourians crossed the border to cast illegal votes. This resulted in two rival governments within the Kansas territory and violent incidents soon followed.

After President Franklin Pierce had stopped the violence, an eventually fair election was held and anti-slavery settlers outnumbered pro-slavery settlers. On January 28, 1861, Kansas was admitted into the Union as a free state.

The Dred Scott Decision:

Dred Scott was a slave who lived in Missouri. His master took him from there to Illinois (free state) and then into Wisconsin and back to Missouri. Scott sued for his freedom for the reason that his residence in a free state had freed him.

His case went all the way to the Supreme Court. The Court was composed of five Southerners and decided that blacks were not United States citizens, and therefore not entitled to rights that citizens enjoyed.

Chief Justice Taney said that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories because slaves were regarded as property and thus the slave owners rights were protected.

This decision also added fuel to the fire which was now already burning and finally led to war.



The Election of 1860:

As the election of 1860 approached, feelings were strong and emotions were running high because James Buchanan was President but he was not popular and therefore not a good candidate for re-election.

CANDIDATES:  - Abraham Lincoln (Republicans; He was personally against slavery

but did not advocate at that time freeing the southern slaves)

- Stephen Douglass (northern democrats; He said that the people of each state should decide whether slavery would be allowed or not)

- John Breckinridge (southern democrats; "Slavery should be allowed to go anywhere"; He used the Dred Scott decision to support his point of view)

- John Bell (Union party; He was only interested in preserving the Union and took no stance on slavery)

Lincoln was elected with 40% of the popular vote but by only one section of the Union which was the North. The South was convinced that Lincoln would force them to abolish slavery. As a consequence South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas left the Union gradually from December 1860 to February 1861. They organized their own government, the Confederation before Lincoln even took office.

Now the Civil War was close to break out and there was only a small step left to take.

1861 Jefferson Davis is elected President of the Confederate States and persuades North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas and Tennessee join the Confederation.

April 1861: The Civil War starts with confederate troops firing at Fort Sumter.

1862-64: The Yankees occupy New Orleans and Vicksburg. Controlling the Mississippi River, they are able to start a campaign (led by General William T. Sherman) which devastates Georgia and South Carolina.

1865: The War ends after the destruction of the town Columbus and with a victory of the Yankees. All in all 635000 people lost their lives, not only on the battlefields. The slaves are freed and given the rights of US-citizens, which causes a new problem that is still present today.

1.5.          Reconstruction and 20th Century:

All states rejoined the Union until 1870 and 6 years later the military occupation is given up. The so called time of reconstruction begins.

1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt designs a program to reform the whole country. It also contains the regulation of the Tennessee River for energy production to make the area more attractive for the industry.

The New Deal, how Roosevelt calls the program, improves the methods of production in agriculture. Many black workers loose their jobs and for that reason they go up north expecting to find new work there.

1977-81: James Earl Carter, former governor of Georgia, becomes the 39th President of the United States. This is the first time after the Civil War that a governor from the South is elected as president.

2.   The States

2.1.          General Facts:

(Florida and Texas will be done more detailed and are sometimes not considered in this chapter!!!)

11 states (capitals): Arkansas (Little Rock), Alabama (Montgomery), Florida

(Tallahassee), Georgia (Atlanta), Louisiana (Baton Rouge), Mississippi (Jackson), North Carolina (Raleigh), South Carolina (Columbia), Tennessee (Nashville), Texas (Austin); Virginia (Richmond)

largest state: Texas (267 338 square miles, 2nd largest state of USA;

population: 16 986 500)

smallest state: South Carolina (31 055 square miles, population: 3 486 700),

Mississippi (47 689 square miles, population: 2 573 200)

total area: ≈ 620 000 square miles

population: black pop.: varies from state to state between 16% (Tn) and 35% (Mi)

                   Indians: about 110000, most of them in North Carolina (60%)

total population: 710 mill.

highest points: Mount Mitchell (2037m, NC)

 Clingmans Dome (2024m, Tn)

lowest point: Gulf of Mexico / Atlantic Ocean (sea level)

largest cities (inhabitants): Atlanta (2,6 mill.), New Orleans (1,32 mill.), Memphis

(935 000), Nashville (800 000)

climate:. The South is dominated by a subtropical climate with an average temperature

of about 22°C during the summer, which means maximum temperatures between 30°C and 40°C. Late spring is the best time for travelling because in August and September the humidity is pretty high. The water temperature varies between 14°C and 29°C.

In winter there can be heavy storms and sometimes temperatures below zero.

2.2.          Economy:

In the 18th century agriculture was the main income of the people. They cultivated corn, rice, indigo, tobacco, sugarcane and of course cotton. Huge plantations with a big number of black slaves dominated the area. The cultivation of tobacco was done by Indians.

Nowadays new sorts of agricultural products such as soybeans, peanuts or potatoes are added. Stock farming is common in Texas and Louisiana owns large fishing-grounds as well as North Carolina. Lumber production is widespread in Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi.

main branches of industry: - fabrication of food and semi-luxuries (Coca-Cola in

Atlanta)

- tobacco and textile industry (North Carolina & Virginia)

- natural gas and oil production in Texas and Louisiana

(also most important state in sulfur and salt production)

- tourism chiefly in Alabama, Mississippi, New Orleans,

North and South Carolina (Charleston)

- metal and engineering industry around Birmingham (Al)

- the most important trade centers are Memphis (cotton)

and New Orleans with the second largest port in the world

- Atlanta is the hometown of many company headquarters

and in Nashville the most important record companies are located

The average income of the inhabitants lies between 8857$ in Mississippi, which is the lowest income in the US, and 12158$ in Georgia.

2.3.          Culture and Science:

The South has always been very important for music. Many music styles preferred by people all over the world have their origin there. Jazz. Blues, Gospel, Dixieland and Rock'n'Roll are the most famous. It is the native country of stars such as Elvis Presley, Louis Armstrong and many more.

But the South can also offer a lot in literature. For instance Mark Twain and Nobel Prize winner William Faulkner are well-known not just in America.

There is a number of really good universities in every state. Chapel Hill was the first national university founded in the U.S. (1795) and creates together with Durham and Raleigh the so called Research Triangle Park, an institution with many research facilities.

Oak Ridge (Tn) is a very important location for the U.S. Army nuclear research since 1942 and the Space & Rockets Center in Huntsville (Tn) plays a big part in building space shuttles.

 

2.4. Texas:

 

a) Quick Facts

population: 19 426 500 (ranks 2nd)

area: 267 338 square miles (ranks 2nd)

border states: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma




capital: Austin

largest city: Houston

others: San Antonio, Dallas, Forth Worth

shoreline: 3 359 mi. (ranks 7th)

nickname: Lone Star State

highest point: Guadalupe Peak (8 749 ft.)

counties: 254

governor: George W. Bush

statehood: December 29, 1845

b) History

Possibly by accident, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was first to land on the Texas coast in 1528. His account of his adventures provide the first written report in this area. By 1550 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and Hernando de Soto had penetrated separate parts of the territory in Spain's hunt for gold. Only when Spain's dominion was threatened did they make any effort toward permanent settlement.

Ysleta, the first town, was an outgrowth of a Spanish mission and Indian pueblo relocated in an attempt to quell Indian revolts in New Mexico in 1680. Similarly, when Robert Cavelier de la Salle established Fort St Louis at Lavaca Bay in 1685, Spain promptly dispatched a force to destroy it. Finding the French outpost deserted they proceeded to the Neches River, where they built the first of the east Texas mission and named it San Francisco de los Tejas.

The word tejas came from the name of a confederacy of local Indian tribes. Its generally accepted meaning is "friendly". However, the Tejas did not remain tejas very long. In 1693, the eastern missions were abandoned, having yielded little more than a name for the hot, brushy outback that Spain finally had claimed officially in 1681.

A second French appearance in the early 1700s spurred the establishment of more Spanish missions in the south-central area. Around them grew the towns of Goliad, Nacogdoches and San Antonio. At the beginning of the 19th century these were still the only settlements of any substance in Texas.

In 1821 Mexico, which included Texas, tore free from Spain. Anxious to colonize the territory, the new nation immediately offered generous land grants to anyone who would settle and develop it. That same year Stephen F. Austin led 300 American families to new Texas homes. The Austin settlement was the first of what became a flood: Within 15 years Americans would outnumber Mexican in Texas four to one.

Because it was so preoccupied with the swift and often ruthless succession of governments during this turbulent period, Mexico could not deal with the cultural and political clashes that resulted from the growth of the American population. The government employed forceful measures to control the colonists' unrest. Consequently, the first overt act of rebellion, the unsuccessful Fredonian War, erupted as early as 1828.

Finally, in 1832 and again in 1833, a group of indignant Texans called a convention. Austin carried their petitions to Mexico, where General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna not only refused to see him but also jailed him for treason. Shortly after Austin's release in 1835 the Texas Revolution began in earnest.

During the revolt, the Texans won only three major battles: the first at Gonzales, in October 1835, the second, the capture of San Antonio, in December, and the last, at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. Other engagements were often disasters, at least partly because of the division and confusion within the command. Independence itself was not agreed upon until the Mexicans, having retaken San Antonio, were mustering against the holdouts at the Alamo.

This last-minute unification that created the Republic of Texas came too late for the 187 men at the Alamo and for Colonel James Fannin Junior's hapless force of 350, whom Santa Anna executed at Goliad after their surrender. But these events furnished the battle cry that spearheaded the final rout of the Mexican Army at San Jacinto. The war was over and the Republic of Texas stood alone, shaky but determined, until 1845.

Throughout this period one of the most influential figures was Sam Houston. First commander of the Texas Army, then as president of the republic, he continued to serve Texas as U.S. senator and governor after annexation. But Houston was ardently pro-Unionist while most of his constituents were not.

Texas seceded in 1861, and when Governor Sam Houston refused to pledge allegiance to the Confederacy he was removed from office. He died in 1863, spared the additional agony of witnessing the decay of his beloved state after the war. Much depleted, Texas rejoined the Union in 1870.

Modern Texas in on the crest of a gusher in the Spindletop oilfield near Beaumont in January 1901. Contemporary Texas might be symbolized by the green light of the mission control room at Houston's Lyndon Baines Johnson Space Center.

c) Geography

Within its borders Texas offers four major geographic zones: the Rocky Mountains, the great Plains, the Central Lowlands and the Gulf Coastal Plains.

The Rocky Mountain province tumbles southward through that westernmost angle of the state known as the Trans-Pecos, presenting some of the country's most dramatic scenery. While desert vegetation covers the low section, Douglas fir and ponderosa pine flourish on the upper slopes. The highest elevations are in the Guadalupe Mountains on the New Mexican border and the awesome wilderness of the Big Bend of Rio Grande. Both areas are national parks.

The Great Plains spill across the Panhandle and into the south -central part of the state. The northern portion, he Llano Estacado or Staked Plain, is table flat except for an occasional canyon. The rough southern upland is the Edwards Plateau. The Great Plains province ends abruptly at the Balcones Escarpment, which sweeps across the state from south to north.

The Balcones Escarpment probably is the most significant topographical feature at all, for it dictates the climate and affects agriculture and livelihoods. Warm air from the Gulf of Mexico encounters the scarp and releases most of its moisture on the lower eastern 40% of the state, leaving the western portion with little rain.

The Central Lowlands is a 200-mile-wide swath of fertile, rolling land marked by several areas of hills. On the south and east it blends into the Gulf Coastal plain . This last region also has two parts. The wooded strip that borders the Sabine River supports some 26 million acres of pine, oak and cypress forests.

In the southern part of the woodlands lies one of the rarest natural preserves of native plant and animal life in the country: the nearly impenetrable Big Thicket. The other part is the heavily populated and industrialized coast, guarded by a string of barrier beaches that include 110-mile-long Padre Island, 83 miles of which is a national seashore.

d) Economy

Perhaps the oil derrick comes to mind as the most obvious symbol of the Texas economy, but test tubes, microchips and rockets might be more appropriate. The Texas economy has diversified since the impetuous days of the oil boom. Plummeting oil prices in the 1980s brought an end to a decade of phenomenal growth and resulted in an awareness of the necessity of diversification to insure economic stability.

Service-oriented sectors such as trade, transportation, public utilities and finance have helped to diversify Texas' economy. Internationalization of the economy has occurred through direct investment, exportation and the establishment of twin plants, along tthe Texas-Mexico border.

High-technology industries such as computers, semiconductors and instruments are major contributors to Texas wealth. The large Texas Medical Center in Houston has acted as a magnet to biotechnology firms, as has San Antonio's Texas Research Park, site of the University of Texas Institute of Biotechnology.

Cotton, cattle and oil - natural resources that built Texas' fortunes - are still important to the state, but high-tech, service industries and also tourism are the building blocks of its future.

 

2.5. Florida:

 

a) Quick Facts

population: 14 650 950 (ranks   

                    4th)

area: 59 960 square miles (ranks

22nd)

shoreline: 8 426 mi. (ranks 2nd)

border states: Alabama, Georgia

capital: Tallahassee

largest city: Jacksonville

others: Miami, Orlando, Tampa

counties: 67

statehood: March 3, 1845

governor: John Ellis Bush

nickname: Sunshine State,

Peninsula State

highest point: Walton County

(345 ft.)

b) History

In 1513 Juan Ponce de León sailed around Florida and landed near St. Augustine. He named his discovery Florida after Pascua Florida (the "Feast of Flowers", or Easter). Attempts of colonization failed until 1565 when Spanish smuggler Pedro Menéndez de Aviles destroyed a French Huguenot colony and established St. Augustine, the nation oldest continuos settlement.

Throughout the next two centuries Spain struggled to control Florida, but in 1763, under the First Treaty of Paris, England gained the region after it returned Cuba to Spain following Seven Years' War. For easier control England divided Florida in half, but during the American Revolution, Spain encroached upon West Florida.

In 1783 the Second Treaty of Paris returned all of Florida to Spain, but in 1819 Spain finally sold Florida to the United States.



Streams of northerners flocked to the new world, but once again Florida was divided: This time the conflict was between the settlers and the Seminole Indians, who were forced to move farther south. The Indians rebelled, burning the new settlements.

In 1817 General Andrew Jackson came to punish the Indians for attacking the settlers, thus instigating the First Seminole War, which lasted until 1818. The Second Seminole War erupted in 1835 when Seminol leader Osceola refused to obey Jackson's demands to move the tribes west of the Mississippi. The war continued for 7 years and ended with the capture of Osceola and all Seminoles were forced to what is now Oklahoma.

Finally peace came to Florida. Statehood was achieved on March 3, 1845. But the tranquility was short-lived, for the new state soon found itself in the midst of the Civil War. Most of Florida's towns and forts were captured, although Tallahassee was the only capital east of the Mississippi that did not fall into Union hands.

After the war political and economic reform came quickly. Northerners were lured by Florida's subtropical atmosphere. With the help of two great financiers, Henry Flagler and Henry Plant, the state became a vacation destination. Beginning in 1885 millionaire Flagler laid down the Florida East Coast Railroad, crowning it with Palm Beach. Meanwhile, on the west coast, Henry Plant had the same idea; he build the Atlantic Coast line Railroad.

Bad times soon swept over the booming peninsula. A freeze in 1894 practically wiped out the state's citrus crop, and hurricanes in 1926 and 1928 killed thousands and destroyed much new development. The stock market crash in 1929, coupled with the great depression, made many of the once wealthy entrepreneurs penniless. But as the Depression ended, Florida steadily recaptured its flow of tourists. By 1940 the state's population was nearly 2 million.

Following World War II growth continued. The west coast became a haven for retirees, while many disillusioned Cubans fled to south Florida following the overthrow of their government by Communist leader Fidel Castro. Cape Canaveral on the east coast became home to the aerospace industry. In 1949 the U.S. Air Force began an Air Force Missile Test Center on Cape Canaveral, and in 1958 the first satellite Explorer I was launched from the site. Before the year's end the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created.

Another boon to Florida's economy was the opening of the Walt Disney World in 1971, which brought with it an explosion of new tourists attractions and thousands of new jobs.

South Florida was visited by a different kind of tourist on August 24, 1992, as Hurricane Andrew devastated the area just south of Miami. The storm cut a 60-mile swath through the state. One of the most destructive storms ever to strike the united States, Hurricane Andrew left behind an estimated $30 billion in damages.

c) Geography

Florida is a low-lying peninsula separating the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico. On the Atlantic side, barrier beaches enclose the Intracoastal Waterway, which separates at St. Lucie Inlet. The west coast, deeply indented with bays south of the Suwannee River, becomes low and marshy as it approaches the Ten Thousand Islands. Because of its countless bays, island and inlets, Florida has the longest tidal coast of any state (8 462 miles).

In the north the terrain slopes gradually from the central panhandle into the Atlantic. The central backbone of the peninsula rises in the area north of Lake Okeechobee, the n dips to sea level. The 135-mile chain of island known as the Florida Keys curves southwestward into the Gulf of Mexico.

Reflecting the warm, moist climate, the vegetation and wildlife are characteristic of both the temperate and tropical zone. Pines, oaks, cypresses and palms predominate. In the swamps dense mangrove forests flourish.

With increasing numbers of animals threatened with extinction, laws protecting species have been enacted and are beginning to show results. The first national bird sanctuary (Pelican Island) was established in 1903, and Ocala National Forest, organized 1908, was the first in the eastern states.

d) Economy

A long growing season makes agriculture a major factor in Florida's economy. Strawberries,. winter vegetables, sugar cane and some 27 varieties of melons are produced in the central lakes region (contains about 30 000 lakes) and in the rich mucklands south of Lake Okeechobee. Field crops are grown and forests maintained the northern countries. The Suwanee River Valley is the primary tobacco section. Orange, grapefruit and tangerine groves in central and south Florida contribute to the state's tremendous citrus industry.

As an important nonmetallic mineral-production state, Florida ranks first in the nation in the production of phosphate and fuller's earth. Bartow, Brooksville and Lakeland are the primary production centers.

The sea is as generous as the soil. Commercial fishermen catch more than 60 kinds of fish for food, oil and fertilizers. The Gulf of Mexico also provides a large quantity of shellfish. 13 deepwater ports make Florida one of the nation leaders in shipping.

The qualities that have drawn tourists and new residents to Florida have recently attracted a new industry - motion pictures and television. Universal and Disney have opened studios in Orlando, and producers of films, television programs, commercials and music videos pump more than $220 million a year into the state's economy.

Yet all this activity does not dim tourism's contribute to Florida's economy. Tourism is still the Sunshine State's number one industry. Millions of visitors each year flock to Florida's long sandy beaches and hot attraction, bringing billions of dollars into the state.

 

3. The Problem

(in chronological order)

Of all America's immigrants, Blacks were the only to come in chains!!

1619: first Blacks arrive at Virginia to work as slaves on rice, corn , indigo and cotton

plantations (Jefferson Davis: "No man will labor for himself who can make

another labor for him.")

1783: The cotton gin is invented by and thus the demand for more workers increases.

1830: more than 2000000 slaves in the USA

1831: Nat Turner, a black preacher, tries to start a rebellion and is hanged for his

trouble.

1860: Abraham Lincoln takes office as US President.

1861-65: CIVIL WAR; at the end all Blacks are given the right of US citizens

1866: White racists reform the Ku Klux Clan, a secret institution which terrorizes

black people.

1870: The right to vote is given to the black population and a law is passes which

forbids the Ku Klux Clan.

1873: foundation of the Southern Historical Society, a patriotic association which

works for the revival of past southern ideals

1896: The Supreme Court of the USA establishes racial segregation into the American

society what is directly carried out in colleges and universities all over the country. (statement: "SEPARATE BUT EQUAL")

1954: Racial segregation is abolished in public schools as a consequence of a

campaign which was started by the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1915.

1955: When Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat in a public bus of the city

Montgomery for a white person she is arrested. A bus boycott organized by the black priest Martin Luther King Jr. follows and ends after 13 months with the abolishment of segregation in public transport.

Since the foundation of the NAACP in 1910, black Americans are fighting for equality and against the apartheid in the south states. Martin Luther King, head of the so called Civil Rights Movement, tries to lead a peaceful campaign. He appeals for civil disobedience, like Mahatma Gandhi did years before, and wants all blacks to ignore the Jim-Crow-Laws, which make them to second class citizens.

1957: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is founded and works to

improve the education of the blacks and their registration as voters. This has a great influence on the election of John F. Kennedy as US President in 1961, though there are only 50% of the black population registered at this time.

In Little Rock (Ar) nine black teenagers are admitted to attend high school, although military forces have to be used to "persuade" the governor and his guards to this decision.

1962: Thousands of soldiers are required to oppress massive race riots incited by

violent white gangs. Consequently James Meredith becomes the first black student attending university (University of Mississippi in Oxford).

1963: After an aggressive but peaceful rebellion against the "Separate-but-Equal"-

statement in Birmingham in August 1963, 200 000 people march to Washington D.C. and demonstrate there. The demonstration contains King's famous speech

"I have a dream".

One year later the Congress and President Lyndon B. Johnson passes the

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, which prohibits all sorts of discrimination of black people; nevertheless economic inequality is still present.

Three members of the Ku Klux Clan are killed in Mississippi by radical black gangs.

Martin Luther King receives the Nobel Peace Prize, although he is not successful in stopping the Black Power movement.

After the murder of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968 in Memphis (Tn) race riots burst out again in more than 100 cities. The Civil Rights movement breaks apart

  and never recovers again.










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