The national soft drink
The history of Coca-Cola!
The possessors of Coca-Cola
John Pemberton - The inventor of Coca Cola
Asa Candler - The Coca-Cola King
Robert Woodruff & the new Santa Claus
Roberto Goizueta - The man who changed the
- The Profile of Coca-Cola
- The mission of the Coca-Cola Company
- The secret ingredient
- Trademark Origins
- Atlanta 1996
Coca-Cola is not only a
refreshment, it's an image!
It is a product that evokes images of
childhood, summer time, and feelings of Americana. Coca-Cola is in the same
league as hot dogs, apple pie, and baseball.
Coca-Cola has promised us luck since Asa
Candler, who acquired the Coca-Cola Company for US-$ 2300, has filled the first
bottle. Today it is an enterprise of $ 150 billions. Coca-Cola is the most
famous trademark in the world.
It sells feelings that are fundamental to
everyone. Coca-Cola is like a religion, it sells feelings of equality (colour,
appearances), companionship, friendship - and refreshment.
When people are together, then they are happy
and drink Coca-Cola and when they drink Coca-Cola, then they are happy.
Coca-Cola is a symbol for freedom.
The history of Coca-Cola:
There is a company which has got a secret. This
secret is kept in a safe. Although everywhere in the world it is enjoyed, there
have never been more than three persons who know the formula definitely. After
the American Civil War America started with the reconstruction of the South and
the people who were living in the South were looking for pain-killers and o
they were an easy prey for wonder doctors.
One of those wonder doctors was John S
Pemberton. He was addicted to morphine and was searching for an alternative.
Pemberton was a genius who knew much about plants and concocted a mixture,
similar a wine-bowle, made from the leaves of the coca-shrub and extracts from
the kola nut. First John S. Pemberton introduced his Coca-Cola in Atlanta,
Georgia in 1886. He brought it down to Jacob's Pharmacy, where consumers could
enjoy a glass of Coca-Cola for five cents. In this year Coca -Cola sold nine
drinks per day and its production started. By chance Pemberton got red barrels
and so red became one colour of his product. Pemberton had a partner named
Frank M. Robinson. It was Robinson who was responsible for the white flowing
script in red background that would become the most famous trademark in the
world. He also took over the responsibility for manufacture, promotion, and
advertising of the new product.
In 1891 Asa Candler became the owner of
the five-year-old Coca-Cola business. He acquired it for $ 2300. Within four
years, his merchandising flair helped to expand consumption of Coca-Cola to
every part of the nation. Two years later the trademark "Coca-Cola" was issued
by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The candy merchant Joseph A.
Biedenharn had the idea that people should be able to take their
refreshment with them wherever they go, so he began offering bottled
Coca-Cola. In 1899, large scale bottling was ushered in by two Chattanooga,
Tennessee entrepreneurs, - for a dollar - bought the rights to bottle and sell
Coca-Cola across the United States. That operation was the forerunner of the
largest, most widespread production and distribution network in the world. In
1903 Asa Candler also had the cocaine removed from Coca-Cola when it became
clear that cocaine is an addictive drug and not as harmless as earlier drug
journals had indicated. In 1908 the Coca-Cola script had been spread across 2.5
million square feet of walls and 10,000 windows displayed Coca-Cola signs. Much
of the success of Coca-cola can be directly attributed to Frank Robinson.
Three years later the U.S, government protested
against Coca-Cola, they thought, that in a beverage for children should not be
caffeine. Coca-Cola answered, that the drink was not for children. That was a
big mistake, because mainly children drank it. So there was a law in the
Coca-Cola Company that they were not allowed to show a child under the age of
12 in there advertising. Therefore the Coca-Cola Company searched for very
young looking models.
Around 1915, many bottles used in the
soft-drink industry were very similar, and Coca-Cola had many imitators which
consumers were unable to identify until they took a sip. The answer was to
create a distinct bottle for Coca-Cola, one that everyone would recognise, even
if it was felt in the dark. As a result, the genuine Coca-Cola bottle with
the contour shape now known around the world was developed by the Root Glass
Company of Terre Haute, Indianan.
Four years later the Coca-Cola Company is sold
for $ 25 million to the Atlanta banker Ernest Woodruff and a group of
investors. In 1923 Robert W. Woodruff, the son of Ernest Woodruff became
president of the Coca-Cola Company. He was responsible for the commercial
success. Five years later Coca-Cola made its first Olympic appearance when
1000 cases of Coke accompanied the (.S. Olympic Team to Amsterdam. By the
1930´s Coca-Cola was taking advantage of new media. They advertised on radio,
gave Coke away at movie sets, employed movie stars, and sports hero's and even Santa
Today only few people know that Coca-Cola
created the Santa Claus how we know him toddy. In 1931 the artist Haddon
Sundblan actually helped to create Santa Claus. Until this point Santa
Claus had often been depicted wearing blue, yellow or green, and he was usually
tall and gaunt and his name was St. Nikolaus. Haddon's illustrations always
depicted Santa Claus as the fat, jolly man, dressed in Coca-Cola-red-
In 1936 the Coca-Cola Company celebrated its 50th
anniversary. A three-day bottler convention, a motion picture chronicling
the Company's early years, and even a special anniversary logo were part of the
"It's the real thing" was first used in Coke advertising
Up until W.W.II Coca-Cola was offered
world-wide, but was only popular to a real degree in Canada, Cuba and Germany.
After the start of W.W.II Robert Woodruff insured that no matter where the
soldiers were, they would always have Coca-Cola available to them. Coca-cola
was already thought of as something American, and the military believed that
Coca-Cola would be an excellent means to
boost morale .Coca-Cola bottling plants were built all over the world to help
supply the soldiers, and by the time the war had ended there were 64 bottling
plants that spanned across every continent except Antarctica.
In 1955 Fanta was launched in Naples,
Italy. Today Fanta is the number one soft-drink in the world. In 1979 Coke
introduces "Have a Coke and a Smile", a campaign of heart-warming
emotion best captured by the television commercial.
Robert Goizueta introduced Diet Coke in 1980, the first
soda produced by Coca-Cola that shared the flagship's name, and it was a huge
success. Unfortunately Goizueta is not remembered for this huge success, but he
is remembered for the biggest mistake in corporate history. Pepsi had been conducting
the "Pepsi Challenge". First started in Dallas, Pepsi sponsored blind
taste tests, and the majority preferred Pepsi to Coke. This taste tests went
nation-wide, and with the same results. Worse yet, when Coke did their own
test, they also found that the majority preferred Pepsi. So Coca-Cola decided
to change the formula. Before this formula change could occur, the "Boss" still
needed to be consulted. At his time Woodruff was 95 Years old and was dying.
Woodruff agreed with Goizueta, that the public now preferred a sweeter drink,
and the bite of Coca-Cola was now a drawback - he gave his permission to change
the formula. A couple of months later, before the new Coca-Cola was released,
the "Boss" died. The new Coca-Cola flopped, and on July 10th, they brought
back the original Coke as Coca-Cola Classic and the New Coke
disappeared. The threat of replacing the original formula with a new version
turned out to be exactly what Coca-Cola needed to revitalise itself, but the
marketing success can only be attributed to stupid luck and not ingenuity. In
this year, 1985, also Cherry Coke was introduced.
In 1986 Coca-Cola, Georgia and the Statue of
liberty celebrate of their 100th anniversary. In 1988 an
independent world-wide survey confirmed that Coca-Cola was the best known, most
admired trademark in the world.
In 1990 World of Coca-Cola, an
attraction featuring a historical and futuristic look at Coca-Cola as well as a
chance to sample the Coca-Cola Company products from around the world in
Seven years later World of Coca-Cola Las
Vegas opened with a complete 100-feet-tall Coca-Cola contour bottle.
The Coca-Cola Company sponsored the Winter
Olympics in Nagano, Japan, marking the 70th anniversary of the
Company's Olympic partnership .New products Citra and Surge hit
the market. And Douglas Ivester was named as the chairman of the Board
of Directors and chief executive officer of the Coca-Cola Company. He is the 10th
chairman of the board in the company's history in 1997. One year later, sales
of Coca-Cola and other company products exceed 1 billion servings per day.
John Pemberton - The Inventor
John S. Pemberton was born in 1831 in the town
of Knoxville, Georgia. He attended pharmacy school, and owned a drugstore in
Columbus, Georgia. He fought for the confederacy during the Civil War, where he
became addicted to morphine after being wounded. After the war Pemberton moved
to Atlanta. He was addicted to morphine and so he was searching for an
alternative. Pemberton knew much about plants and was very interested in the
coca-shrub and the kola nut.
He extracted the cocaine from the leaves of the
coca-shrub and the caffeine from the kola nut and made "French Wine of Coca".
It was one of his biggest selling items. French Wine of Coca was a drink very
similar in nature to Vin Mariani, a cocaine based Bordeaux wine that was
immensely popular through out the world. At that time cocaine was not thought
of harmful, and doctors such as Sigmund Freud even praised its virtues.
Pemberton's formula also contained caffeine from the kola nut. Pemberton sold
hid French Wine of Coca and a cure for nervous disorders and impotency. In 1886
he began experimenting and decided to remove the wine. The cocaine and caffeine
tasted very bitter, so plenty of sugar was added to mask this flavour.
Essential oils of various fruits flavours were also used to improve the taste.
On May 8th, 1886 in a laboratory in his house at 107 Marietta
Street, Atlanta, John S. Pemberton created the syrup that would later become
Coca-Cola. But Coca-Cola neither made him rich, nor healed him. In the age of
57 he sold the formula, without knowing that others would become very rich with
Asa Candler - The Coca-Cola
Asa Candler was born on December 10th,
1851. As a young man he decided not to go to college. In 1888 Asa Candler
bought Coca-Cola for $2 300. He changed the formula several times to improve
taste, improve shelf life and insure he had a unique product, because several
people had known Pemperton's original formula. He removed cocaine totally from
Coca-Cola, when it became clear that cocaine was an addictive drug. But the
people, who drank it, didn't know that and so they thought that Coca-Cola is
something mysterious, and that they do something against the law. Coca-Cola
profited from their believing. He gave the name 7X to the formula.
In 1904 Coca-Cola became so successful that Asa
Candler built a skyscraper, and fixed a photo of himself and a bottle of
Coca-Cola into its foundation. In 1916 Asa was elected Mayor of Atlanta. By
1917, Coca-Cola was being attacked on several fonts. The federal Government
reasoned that Coca-Cola had to be breaking the 1906 Pure Food & Drug Laws
by either containing cocaine. Court testimony revealed that Coca-Cola was now
flavoured with a decocanized coca leaf.
It is remarkable that when Asa Candler was
approached in 1917, by two New York Lawyers representing a hidden syndicate,
with an offer to purchase Coca-Cola for $ 25 million he turned them down. A
couple of month after turning down the offer to sell Coca-Cola, on Christmas
Day 1917, he decided to give the Coca Cola Company to his children. Asa
Candler's oldest son Howard took full control over Coca-Cola, and his brothers
and sisters took seats on the board. But in 1919 they sold the company to
Ernest Woodruff. He was universally despised as a corporate raider, and it is
also probable that Woodruff was responsible for the earlier 1917 offer (§ 25
million). Asa was not told about the sale of the company by even one of his
children- he read about it in the paper- To a man that family meant everything
to, this hurt him deeply. Asa Candler lived for another ten years.
Robert Woodruff & the
"new" Santa Claus
Ernest Woodruff had a son named Robert, and it
appears that he was somewhat of a disappointment to his father. Robert was a
terrible student; he flunked out of high school, and ended up going to military
school. His father then offered him a job within one of his companies, and
since Robert was planning to get married he took the job. Robert was offered
the presidency of the Coca-Cola Company.
By the 1920's people began driving cars and so
Woodruff realised that gas stations should be equipped in order to attract
people to buy Coca-Cola while tanking up their cars. By the 1930's they advertised
on radio, gave Coke away at movie sets, employed sports heroes and even Santa
In 1936 Woodruff was invited to the Olympic
Games in Berlin. He was the guest of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi-elite. Robert
Woodruff saw clearly the politics of Hitler, but he was a pragmatist, and his
politics were Coca-Cola.
He retired in 1955, but he continued to remain
on the Finance Committee, and from there he ruled the company. He died in the
1980's but Woodruff was always the one with the power. Over the years Coke
would see many new advertising campaigns and would introduce such new drinks as
Sprite, TaB, Mello Yello, Mr. Pibb and Fresca.
Roberto Goizueta - He changed
Roberto Goizueta (pronounced Goh-SWET-a), a
native of Cuba, was appointed president of the Coca-Cola Company May 30th,
1980. Goizueta had started as a chemist with Coca-Cola, and in fact was one of
the people who actually knew the formula.
Roberto Goizueta introduced Diet Coke in 1980.
After the "Pepsi Challenge" the company decided to change the formula, because
more people preferred Pepsi to Coca-Cola. But the New Coke became flopped and
the company brought back the original Coke as Coca-Cola Classic.
On October 18th, 1997 Roberto
Goizueta died at the age of 65 from complications arising from his fight with
Douglas Ivester, an exaccountant who has been
with Coca-Cola for many years has been appointed the new President. Mr. Ivester
has been described as a soft-spoken, intensely competitive and aggressive
The profile of Coca-Cola
The Coca-Cola Company is the global soft-drink
industry leader, with world headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. The Company and
its subsidiaries employ 30 000 people around the world. The Coca-Cola Company
is represented in nearly 200 countries around the world. Approximately 70
percent of the Company volume and 80 percent of the Company profit com from
outside the United States.
The Coca-Cola Company stock, with ticker symbol
KO, is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Common stock is also
traded on the Boston, Cincinnati, Chicago, Pacific and Philadelphia exchanges.
Outside the United States, Company common stock is listed and traded on German
and Swiss exchanges.
The Company's operating management structure
consists of five geographic groups and The Minute Maid Company.
* The North American Group compromises the United States and
* The Latin America Group includes the Company's operations
across Central and South America, Mexico to the tip of Argentina.
*The Middle and Far East Group, which is the Company's most
populated operating group, ranges from the Middle East to India, China, Japan
* The Greater Europe Group stretches from Greenland to Russia's
Far East including some of the most established markets in Western Europe and
the rapidly growing nations of Eastern and Central Europe.
* The Minute Maid Company is the company's juice business in
Houston, Texas. It is the world's leading marketer of juices and juice drinks.
The Coca-Cola Company has a commitment, more
than a century old, to social responsibility through philanthropy and good
citizenship. The company' reputation for good citizenship results from
charitable donations, technical assistance and other demonstrations of support
in thousands of communities world-wide.
The Coca-Cola Company continues to activate
sponsorship throughout the world, including associations with World Cup
Soccer, The National Football League, NASCAR, The Tour de France, The Rugby
World Cup, Copa America and numerous local sports teams. The Coca-Cola
Company has sponsored the Olympic Games since 1928.
Argentina: The Coca-Cola production began in Argentina in
1942. On the first day the product hit the streets, seven 24-bottle cases were
sold, and eighteen single 185 millilitre bottles. By the end of 1943, sales in
Argentina amounted to 300, 000 cases using 20 distribution trucks.
At present, Coca-Cola de Argentina S.A. sells
around thousand times more products annually than during the historic first
Belgium: Belgium was introduced to Coca-Cola in 1927.
The Coca-Cola Company currently employs close 2000 people and serves up to 30
000 restaurants, supermarkets and other customers in that country.
China: The national beverage is tea in China. It is
the most important beverage. Coca-Cola came to China by the 1920's, but when
Mao came to power, he forbade it. But after his death in 1978 Coca-Cola came
back to China. Roberto Goizueta, he was the boss of Coca-Cola at this time,
could not be intimidated. In China live approximately 1 billion people who
drink tea and drink less than one coke per year.
But in the United States a family who consists
of four people, drink 3 200 bottles of Coca-Cola per year.
Goizueta used the methods for marketing which
were forbidden during the Cultural Revolution, and that worked. His target
group was to youth.
Denmark: The first Coca-Cola products were imported
into Denmark in the mid -1930's. Today the brands account for about 40 percent
of soft-drinks consumed by the 5, 2 million Danes.
France: Coca-Cola was introduced to France in the
"Café de l'Europe" in Paris in 1933. Coca-Cola has been the number one
soft-drink in France since 1966, and its total sales have doubled in eighty
years. Coca-Cola France has created more than 1000 jobs and has invested more
than 3 billion francs in France since 1989. Today, French consumers drink an
average 88 servings of Coca-Cola products each year.
Mexico: The native tribes did not resist against
Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola became an important element of their rituals. Some tribes
call it "Holly Water".
The mission of the Coca-Cola
As the world's largest beverage company, they
refresh that world. The Company does that by developing superior soft-drinks,
both carbonated and noncarbonated, and profitable non-alcoholic
beverage systems that create value for their Company, their bottling partners,
their customers, their share owners and the communities in which they do
* Coca-Cola, the world's most recognised
trademark, and other highly valuable trademarks.
* The world's most effective and
* Satisfied customers who make a good
profit selling the products
* Their people who are ultimately responsible
for building this enterprise.
* Their abundant resources which must be
* Their strong global leadership in the
beverage industry in particular and in the business world in general.
The secret ingredient:
People love to speculate about the secret
ingredient in Coca-Cola. Some say it could be ferreted out by analytical
chemistry. Others are sure that they taste a distinctive flavour base. But most
are simply delighted that it makes Coca-Cola, the world's premier soft-drink,
taste so consistently delicious.
What is the secret ingredient? One secret is locked safely away in
a secured vault. But an other is just an arm's length away. It's the consistent
quality of Coca-Cola. Wherever business is done by the Coca-Cola Company, the
Coca-Cola Company adheres not only to local, state and federal laws for food
processing and labelling, but also to their own strict standards for exceptional
Everything they do, from the selection of
ingredients to the delivery of their finished products, reflects their
commitment to offering us the highest quality products. Most of the flavours
are produced as concentrates. With the addition of sweetener and water to the
concentrates syrups are produced. Precise control over water and sweetener
components must be demonstrated, and quality control professionals must oversee
each step of the process.
The syrups tart pure fresh water. In addition
to the water and concentrate, sweeteners are added to produce syrup for most
products. In the past, only granulated sucrose or liquid sucrose was used in
most of the nondiet soft-drinks. In the 1970's, improved technology allowed to
begin also using high fructose corn syrup, another type of sugar that provides
The magic of turning syrup into a finished
beverage is the role of independent bottlers and canners. They bring together
the essential ingredients - syrup, water, and carbon dioxide - and transform
them into the essence of refreshment. It is a modern way to archive consistent
Soon after John S. Pemberton prepared the first
bottle of Coca-Cola syrup in 1886, his friend and bookkeeper, F. M. Robinson,
chose an alliterative name. He wrote the words in the now familiar flowing
script, and in 1893, "Coca-Cola" was registered officially in the U.S-Patent
and Trademark Office.
But people started to ask for "Coke" and, in
1941, the trademark "Coke" received equal prominence in advertising with
"Coca-Cola", and in 1945, "Coke" was registered as a trademark.
The shape design of the contour bottle for
Coca-Cola is also a U.S. registered trademark, one of the few package designs to receive this
distinction. The bottle was designed in 1915 by Alexander Samuelson, an
employee of the Root glass Company of Indiana. Legends suggest that the bottle
was shaped deliberately to resemble the fashionable hobble skirt.
The extensions of the Coca-Cola name began in
1982 with the introduction of Diet Coke (also called Coca-Cola
Light in some countries). Diet Coke quickly became the number one selling
low-calorie soft-drink in the world. In 1983, caffeine-free versions of Coke
and Diet Coke were introduced. And in 1985, Cherry Coke made its
The name "Fanta" was first registered as a
trademark in Germany in 1941, when it was used for a few years for a soft-drink
created from the available materials and flavours. The name was then revived in
1955 in Naples, Italy, when it was used for the Fanta orange drink we know
today. Fanta is now the number one orange soft drink in the world.
The idea for the name of the lemon-lime
soft-drink, Sprite, came from early advertising. During the 1940's, an elf with
silver hair and a big smile, was used in advertising for Coca-Cola. This
character, known affectionately as the "Sprit Boy", urged consumers to buy more
of the product. In the late 1950's, the Company developed a citrus-flavoured
drink. The short, sharp and memorable sound of Sprite made it an ideal name for
the new product. Since another company had been using the name since 1955,
the Company had to purchase and register "Sprite" as its property.
In 1961, Sprite made its U.S. debut.
A computer search yieled a brand name for the
Company's first low-calorie beverage in 1963. Computers were programmed
to sort out all Three- and four-letter words in English. "TaB" was
selected from some 250 000 words.
Brand history in North
1972 Mr Pibb
1979 Mello Yello
Remblin' Root Beer
1982 Diet Coke
1983 Caffeine-free Coca-Cola
Sugar-free Sprite, renamed diet
1984 Diet Fanta
1985 Cherry Coke
Coca-Cola with a
1986 Diet Cherry Coke
1987 Diet Mello Yello
1990 Caffeine-free Coca-Cola Classic
1992 "New" Coke, renamed Coke II
The commitment of the Coca-Cola Company is based
on the principle to protect and preserve environment. Working together with
their suppliers, customers, regulators and their environmental partners, they
can achieve an effective balance between responsible environmental and economic
The policies of the Coca-Cola Company:
At the Coca-Cola Company, their business is
providing consumers around the world with simple moments of uniquely satisfying
refreshment. They work hard to infuse their environmental efforts with that
Spirit of refreshment always means conducting
the business in ways that protect and preserve the environment. And it means
continually searching for new better ways to improve environmental performance.
The framework for their world-wide management
of environmental issues affecting their business is The-Coca-Cola-Environmental-Management-System
(TCCEMST).TCCEMST ensures management of their compliance with applicable
local laws and regulations and with Company policies and strategies, and
facilitates the implementation of good environmental practices in the operation
of their business.
*Cooperation - They cooperate with public, private and
governmental organisations in seeking solutions to environmental problems. The
company's skills, energies and resources are directed to those activities and
issues to which the Company can make a positive and effective contribution.
* Compliance - They conduct operations in compliance with
applicable environmental laws and regulations. Even in the absence of
governmental regulation, they operate in an environmentally responsible manner.
* Commitment - The commitment of the Company to protecting and
preserving the environment permeates their entire organisation. They believe
that effective environmental management systems require the involvement of
employees at all levels, and their officers, managers, and employees assume
responsibility for its daily implementation.
* Minimising discharges - The Company minimises the discharge
of waste materials into the environment by utilising responsible pollution
A few things can always bring folks together.
Like the Olympic Games. Or art. And of course, there is Coca-Cola.
In 1996, these three elements combined to create a unique - yet familiar -
exhibition for the Olympic Games in Atlanta.
With the Coca-Cola bottle as their common
canvas, artists from 53 different countries created works of art using
local materials while capturing the spirit of their native traditions and
e.g.: a six-feet-tall replica of Stonehenge
from England, or a ten-feet-bottle made of rattan, wood and grass from the
Philippines. The public response to the exhibition was so enthusiastic, that
the Coca-Cola Company sent many of the bottles on a world tour. And 16 bottles
have been put on permanent display at the world of Coca-Cola - Las Vegas.
The Olympic Games in Atlanta:
The Coca-Cola Company paid $ 300 000 millions
for advertising, and it was worth, because one year later the company had a
before-tax of $ 12 billions.
In 1997 Roberto Goizueta died. He
brought the Coca-Cola Company from a successful American enterprise to a world