United Nations Organisation
The United Nations was
established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace
through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every
nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership now totals 189 countries.
When States become Members
of the United Nations, they agree to accept the obligations of the UN Charter,
an international treaty which sets out basic principles of international
relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain
international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations,
to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for
human rights, and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.
United Nations is central to global efforts to solve problems which challenge
humanity. Cooperating in this effort are more than 30 affiliated organizations,
known together as the UN system. Day in and day out, the UN
and its family of organizations work to promote respect for human rights,
protect the environment, fight disease, foster development and reduce poverty.
UN agencies define the standards for safe and efficient transport by air and
sea, help improve telecommunications and enhance consumer protection, work to
ensure respect for intellectual property rights and coordinate allocation of
radio frequencies. The United Nations leads the international campaigns against
drug trafficking and terrorism. Throughout the world, the UN and its agencies
assist refugees and set up programmes to clear landmines, help improve the
quality of drinking water and expand food production, make loans to developing
countries and help stabilize financial markets.